The August 2023 edition of the GravurExchange!
Your source for news and events!
Inside August’s GravurExchange:
- GAA Committee Chair’s Corner.
- Basic and Advanced Gravure Seminar returning in 2024.
- Preview of the Printing Track at the 2023 R2R.
- Inks for Li-Ion battery anodes printed by rotogravure: Center for Printing and Coating Research, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI
- Member Benefit Corner: R2R Registration discounts.
- EPA and Environmental News
- Upcoming Events and other gravure-printing news
Gravure AIMCAL Alliance Committee, Jim Garvey, the chair’s Corner!
The ARC R2R 2023 USA Confeeence was intentionally located in a “Converting Corridor” to provide the printers and converters a drivable venue. There are also a few exiciting offers to encourage participation and education with these companies being offered a 20% Off discount Code: GETINVOLVED20. In addition, with the registration of two employees all organizations will receive third employee registration at no charge when done on a single payment. The agenda was crafted to provide training and other valuable information that is directly applicable to the converters.
The conference starts off with Introduction to Converting Fundamentals Course with industry experts. The technical sessions are presented in a multi track format, including VIP Keynotes, panel discussions, networking activities, and a large exhibit floor. 7 tracks with 95 speakers covering: Battery Energy, Coating and Laminating, Flexible Packaging, Printing, Sustainability, Vacuum and Web Handling. Visit the R2R USA Page to learn more and register: https://www.rolltoroll.org/2023-r2r-usa-conference
Planning has started for the return of the Basic and Advanced Gravure Seminars. They will be hosted by Interprint in Pittsfield, MA.
The pre-pandemic seminars hosted by Interprint were well attended and provided direct hands-on detailed gravure operation training. Interprint’s facility is the ideal location with its pilot press and cylinder engraving department. Todd Luman of Interprint and Tim Janes the ARC Member Outreach Director are coordinating to set a date in 2024 for the Seminars. Information will be provided when available so those seeking training can start the budgetary planning.
2023 R2R Technical Conference in Milwaukee on October 2-5th. Preview of the Printing Track!
Todd Luman of Interprint the “Gravure Printing Track” Coordinator for the 2023 R2R USA Conference, and the committee have recruited a terrific group of speakers.
Third Gravure Track Preview!
Update on Alternative Cylinder Surfaces. As the market pressure increases for shorter press runs, quicker project starts and continuing price increases of steel bases, gravure printers are being squeezed. Two of the leading alternative cylinder surface systems developers will provide the latest from beta sites as non-metal surfaces that do not need to be chrome plated are becoming a reality. The ultimate goal of the Kaspar Graphic Solutions “Helio-Pearl” and the Rossini “Eco-Grav System” is to provide a complete cylinder coating system that will allow the gravure packaging printers to be able to engrave cylinders in-house. Without the need that requires a surface coating like chrome, the new systems will not have the regulatory burden that comes with a chrome plating tank. The two back-to-back presentations are a must for those looking to bring cylinder engraving in-house. Go to: 2023 R2R USA Registration (rolltoroll.org)
GravurExchange process support article of the month: PGSF Grant Supports Western Michigan Research with donation of RK-Proofer (fig 1):
Originally, published in Journal of Print Media Technology Research. Res: Pekarovicova A., Matthew K., Vicco J., Fleming P.D. Li-Ion battery anodes printed by rotogravure, Journal of Print Media Technology. Res., Vol 12, No 1, 2023.
The article was edited for publishing in the GravurExchange.
Inks for Li-Ion battery anodes printed by rotogravure
Alexandra Pekarovicova, Kevin Matthew, Jorge Vicco Mateo, Kholoud Al-Ajlouni and Paul D. Fleming
Center for Printing and Coating Research,
Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI
Corresponding author: Alexandra Pekarovicova, Chemical and Paper Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Western Michigan University, 4601 Campus Drive, A-217 Floyd Hall
Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5462; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Inks for Li-ion battery anodes were formulated for printing with the rotogravure printing process. Graphite powders with different particle sizes were used as conductive materials along with nanoparticle carbon black fillers. As polymer binders, polyvinylidenefluoride PVDF (commercial names Kureha 9100 and Kureha 9300) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were tested. Inks were printed using proprietary gravure engraving. Ink solid content of 30-70% was examined. At 70% solids, ink layers were 25-27 µm thick with mass loading of 2.1-2.5 mg/cm2. A solids content found of 50% was the highest that produced a smooth uniform film. Half cells were made using print with 1000 µm holes or they were bar coated. Half cells were charged and discharged in order to measure irreversible capacity loss (ICL). Inks with mixed binders Kureha/PVP were performing better than sole polymers. Half- cell testing revealed that PVP as a sole binder has not good electrical performance, thus it was mixed with PVDF. The ICL was lower when mixed PVDF/PVP binder was employed in anode ink.
Keywords: printed batteries, anodes, rotogravure, ink formulation, half-cell, capacity, irreversible capacity loss
Introduction and Background
Due to the increasing impact of oil pollution on the environment (CO2 production and liquid spills), more automobile and many other industries have turned to electric item manufacturing. Therefore, the production of more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly batteries has become a hot topic at the moment. The traditional lead-acid battery is bulky and heavy, but the printing processes can produce much thinner and lighter batteries to provide power for wearable devices, flexible displays, and smart labels among others (Costa, et al., 2020; Khan et al., 2015). With the advent of printed electronics, flexible batteries have undergone rapid development in the past ten years. The use of printing processes in battery manufacturing can lead to mass production of flexible batteries (Arduini, 2016). Printing can produce flexible batteries with different design patterns, and their multilayer printing stack can shape the geometry and structure of the battery and improve its electrochemical performance. There are usually two types of the printed structures of printed batteries, such as stack or sandwich architecture and the coplanar or parallel architecture. Components used are anode, separator, electrolyte, cathode, and current collectors deposited on the flexible substrate (Lanceros, 2018). Most of the batteries are manufactured in a stacked structure (Willert et al., 2018), while some are made in a coplanar configuration (Kim et al., 2015). The advantage of coplanar configuration is that it, among other manufacturing processes, can be made using the screen-printing process and the total thickness of the battery can be reduced to 0.5 mm. Its disadvantage is that its discharge current and area ratio charge density is lower, and it has a higher internal resistance.
Currently, many researchers are focusing on screen printing of battery electrodes. This printing technology can use high viscosity inks for printing, which allows them to have good coverage on different materials, such as copper foil (Vicco, 2021), or plastic (Zhao and Wu, 2019), which are suitable for printing lithium -ion battery electrodes (Khan et al., 2015). Based on the size required to print battery electrodes, the amounts of active materials, the roughness of the electrode layer, and the thickness of each layer of the battery can be modified. There have been many studies using printing methods such as gravure printing, flexographic printing, screen printing, extrusion printing, and inkjet printing to explore battery electrode production (Søndergaard et al., 2013, Huebner, 2015) as well as attempts to print electrolyte (Huebner, 2022). Lithium metal powder-based inks, which contain lithium metal powder, polymer binders, and other conductive materials can be used in anode printing. In general, the advantages of printed batteries are based on mature printing technology, and the fact that they are light, flexible, low cost, can be mass-produced, customizable, and more environmentally friendly.
Research in the printed batteries based on gravure printing showed that the quality of the gravure printing layer mainly depends on several physical parameters such as ink, substrate, and process. To enable the mass production of batteries through gravure printing, the study was done using carbon coated Zn0.9Fe0.1O (encapsulated in a thin film of carbon) as a reference alloying material (Bresser et al., 2013). With the water based electrode inks, 2-propanol can be used as a cosolvent to reduce the excessive surface tension of water-based inks in combination with corona pretreatment of the substrate for increased surface energy and thus ink adhesion (Biscay et al., 2011). Using the gravure printing process, multiple layers can be deposited, and the multilayer method applied is able to obtain the required mass loading (about 1.7 mg cm-2) to achieve high homogeneity of the gravure printing layer, and its highly reproducible electrochemical performance up to 400 life cycles (Montanino et al., 2021).
Printing inks for anode and cathode inks contain active materials, such as graphite, graphene, and active fillers such as nanocarbons, and resins or binders, which are selected based on ink chemistry whether ink is solvent, or water based. Graphene can be doped by ball milling technique, and can be combined with silicon, silicon oxide, iron oxide for improved performance (Yu et al., 2022). Resins can include litiated polyacrylic acid, or polyvinylidene fluoride of different degrees of polymerization. The advantage of printing batteries is that layers of variable thickness can be produced. Printed layers are flexible, and they can be integrated into various substrates and devices. Printing technologies make it possible to easily scale up the products (Costa et al, 2020). Printed layers should be thick, preferably up to 100 µm and therefore screen-printing is the process of choice (Rassek et al., 2019). There was not much information found specifically in gravure printing of anodes and cathodes, which calls for need to explore gravure process for printing these features for batteries. In this work, the aim was to formulate rotogravure printing inks for anodes and evaluate their printability in terms of print uniformity, thickness of the layers and ultimately, half-cell battery performance.
Materials and Methods
The substrate for anode Li ion battery printing was copper foil from MTI Co., with caliper of 9 µm. Its surface roughness was 0.32 µm as measured by Bruker white light interferometry. Sheet resistivity of Cu foil was measured using SRM-232 sheet resistance meter with four-point probe and it was 0.0018 Ω/sq. Surface energy of copper foil was measured via contact angle with water: 87.2 ± 1.3 ° and hexadecane: 3.3 ± 0.1 °, as well as surface tension of water via pendant drop measurement: 71.1 ± 0.6 mN/m; surface tension of hexadecane via pendant drop measurement: 24.5 ± 0.3 mN/m. These values were plugged into the Owens –Wendt equation and surface energy of copper was estimated to be 26.5 ± 0.7 mN/m.
A Thinky Mixer AR 100 (THINKY Co., Tokyo Japan) was employed for mixing the inks. As the conductive graphite powders, Philips 5 µm, 10 µm, 15 µm (Philips 66, Houston, Texas) and Mage 3 graphite (Hitachi Chemical, Sakuragawa, Japan), and conductive nanoparticle carbon black filler (CB 4400 or C45) with particle size of 20 nm were used. Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) from Sigma Aldrich with different degrees of polymerization and commercial names Kureha 9100, Kureha 9300 (Kureha Co., Japan) with molecular weights of 2.8×105 to 1×106 was dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent and used as the vehicle. In some inks, a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with molecular weight of 10000 or polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinylidene fluoride mix of binders (PVP/PVDF) was employed. Rheology of finished inks was evaluated on an Anton Paar MRC302 rheometer.
Printing was done on Cu foil using a gravure RK gravure K-proofer (Figure 1), which uses a flat plate as an image carrier. The gravure plate for the RK gravure K-proofer was engraved by WRE /ColorTech (Greensboro, NC, USA) with proprietary engraving at 75 LPI. A plate was engraved with 1000, 500, 250 and 125 µm circular hole shaped nonimage areas. Detail of 500 µm nonimage area is shown in Figure 2 and white light interferometry detail is shown at Figure 3, showing depth of cells at 75 µm and the cell opening in one direction of the 1000 µm designed hole was measured at 1194 µm. Engraving was done by hybrid process of laser ablation and chemical etching. Such holes in the printed image improve the battery performance at high C rates and reduce Lithium dendrites that collect on the electrodes (Emani, et al., 2022, Palaniappan, et al., 2022).
The profile of the plate and ink films was prepared on a Bruker white light interferometry instrument. Image analysis of printed ink films was done using Pax it 2 software.
In order to test irreversible capacity loss of anodes, half coin cells were constructed (Figure 4) in a glove box to avoid moisture and oxygen damage. A half-cell contains a conductive electrode, conductive electrolyte and a current collector. Reversible/irreversible capacity and stability of the electrode can be obtained from the galvanostatic cycling technique (Figure 5). The galvanostatic cycling technique provides information about reversible/irreversible capacity and stability of the electrode.
Results and Discussion
Anodes for Li Ion battery electrodes were printed with long chain polyvinylidene fluoride polymer inks. As active materials graphite powders of different particle sizes were employed. Graphite powders are deemed to be efficient and economical conductive materials; thus, they were considered very suitable for this work. At this stage, particle size of the graphite powders 5-22 µm was assessed, thus only the graphite part of the ink formulation was changed, and the rest of the formulation was held the same (Table 1). Solid content of all four inks was kept at 50%, because higher solid content could not be printed uniformly on the designed structure of gravure plate. As a binder, Kureha 9300 polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used and as a solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) was employed. PVDF is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer. It is a special polymer used in applications requiring the highest purity as well as resistance to solvents, acids, and hydrocarbons with excellent mechanical properties. It was selected because it is a known binder for carbon electrodes in supercapacitors and other electrochemical applications. NMP was selected as a solvent for this system because of his high chemical and thermal stability, and compatibility with many solvents such as alcohols, ketones, chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons.
Table 1: Gravure Anode Ink Formulation
Formulated inks were tested for their rheological properties (Figure 6 and 7). Viscosity of polymer suspensions usually increases with increased degree of polymerization, and higher solids content. At certain composition, its viscosity is reduced by increasing the applied shear rate, because the bonds between the polymer chains are broken (Triantafillopoulos, 1988). Tendency of ink to lose viscosity when stirred is called pseudoplasticity. This property favors the ink in the moment of printing because it flows more easily. When the stress or shear rate is decreased, the viscosity of polymer suspensions or inks is regained, e. g. when ink is printed its viscosity increases again, which helps the ink to set on the substrate and create required print features. Not all inks set at the same speed. The speed at which the structure is restored is called thixotropy. Figure 7 shows that all the tested inks after increased shear drastically decreased in viscosity, but after returning to the original shear rate, the viscosity is regained, which shows that all of those inks display thixotropic behavior. The highest viscosity was found for ink with Philips 5 µm, while the inks with Mage 3 and Philips 15 µm had the lowest viscosity. Pseudoplastic behavior of the inks was confirmed in regime of shear rate of 0.1-200/s for the flow curve. All of inks were shear thinning (Figure 6).
All of these inks were printed on an RK gravure K-proofer (Figure 1), and these experiments showed that ink containing graphite powder with 5 µm particle size exhibited the best print quality. The reason may be that the 5 µm graphite particle size could deposit the ink film with lowest primary porosity and the best ink film integrity. Also, 5 µm particle size of graphite probably enables easiest ink release from gravure image carrier. Overall, all applied PVDF inks seem to have too high viscosity for rotogravure printing process. Therefore, we wanted to experiment with lower ink viscosity, for which a new resin polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) at 10,000 molecular weight was tested to disperse graphite and nanocarbon active materials. Inks with 30-72% solids were formulated with graphite from Philips (P5) with size of 5 microns, and conductive filler CB 4400 with the ratio of ingredients: Philips P5/CB 4400/PVP (80:5:15). As a solvent, ethanol or NMP were used. Ethanol was evaporating too fast, thus N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) was chosen as a more suitable solvent. The average surface tension of NMP ink with 70% solids was 39.4 mN/m and average contact angle with copper surface was 40.8 ° (data not shown). At 70% solids, ink layers were 25-27 µm thick with mass loading of 2.1-2.5 mg/cm2 (data not shown). PVP inks showed excellent dispersing characteristics and improved print quality when compared with PVDF ink prints. Printed inks with PVP resin are shown at the top part of the Figure 8. Gravure prints with N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were easier to work with than using inks with water or ethanol as a solvent. Designed circular holes with diameter 1000 µm were resulting in printed circles 846± 20 µm in diameter, while 500 µm circular holes were printed with 219±11 µm diameter, smaller than those shown in Figure 3 (Figure 8 Top, Right and Left). Primary porosity of printed electrodes mostly depends on different particle size of active material, in our case graphite of different particle size 5-15 µm. Designed circular holes, or nonimage areas are responsible for secondary porosity. Precisely controlled porous architecture of electrodes is necessary for fast charging cells. Fast charging requires electrodes with high porosity and low tortuosity enabling fast electrolyte transport and at the same time prevent lithium plating (Mijailovic et al., 2021). Thus, circular holes, or non-image areas were designed on printed electrodes with the aim to create so called secondary porosity. Secondary porosity was found useful in suppressing Li dendrites formation in graphite electrodes at fast charging rates (see also Emani, et al., 2022, Palaniappan, et al., 2022).
Printed ink films on copper foil were used to construct half coin cells according to Figure 4. Half cells were used to assess reversible/irreversible capacity and stability of printed anodes. Irreversible capacity loss of half coin cells made with PVP inks was too high and half cells did not have sufficient electrical performance. Thus, in the next step PVP was mixed with PVDF – Kureha 9100 or Kureha 9300 and half cells were made again. The first attempts showed that mixing Kureha and PVP resins is possible, so far 2:1 ratio was tested, and inks exhibited uniform prints. Their performance in terms of irreversible capacity loss (ICL) was tested again (Figure 9). Inks were bar coated, not gravure printed to ensure higher thickness of layers than what was possible to achieve with gravure printing. Figure 9 should be compared with Figure 5.
From Figures 10 and 11, it can be seen that performance of mixed PVP/PVDF inks was greatly improved compared to PVP or PVDF alone, and mixed PVP/PVDF achieved actually better performance and suffered from less ICL than inks made with sole Kureha 9100 or 9300. PVP is known to have excellent dispersing properties. The macromolecule of PVP contains strong polar lactam hydrophilic groups and C-C long-chain lipophilic groups, which can be well compatible with a variety of solvents and can be coated on the surface of particles to form a good dispersion effect through steric hindrance. Introducing PVP, a polymer with an amphiphilic structure, onto the surface of graphite can significantly improve the dispersion properties of graphite in water, or organic solvents. Therefore, PVP can be used as dispersant for Li-Ion battery electrode inks and other conductive materials (Viaenne,2016; Annon, 2022). This is most likely the reason that PVP enhances the electrical performance of printed anodes in mixed PVP/PVDF inks. PVP with molecular weight around 10,000 creates low viscosity dispersions, which can be suitable for gravure printing, but as a sole binder it does not have sufficient mechanical properties needed for battery architecture. PVDF has large molecular weight (500,000-1,000,000) and its macromolecules create highly viscous dispersions, suited better for screen printing than for gravure printing.
Besides optimized viscosity, mechanical and dispersing properties, mixed PVP/PVDF suspensions exhibit intermolecular forces, beneficial for improved electrical performance. When the two binders PVP and PVDF (Figure 12) were mixed at the ratio 4:1 (PVP: PVDF) and allowed to stand for 0-24 hours, obvious darkening of color was observed in the mixtures. FTIR was performed on the mixtures to understand what may be contributing to color change and change in ink electrical performance. Binders were dried and ground, and FTIR was performed at 500 to 4000cm-1(Figure 13). The FTIR spectrum showed broadening of O-H groups at 3434 cm-1, and 3426 cm-1 which could occur due to stretching of O-H bonds. Stretching of C-H groups at 3000cm-1 and C=O group at 1652 cm-1was also observed, which strongly suggests the formation of hydrogen bonds between C=O groups of PVP and methylene groups of PVDF (Figure 12), which could lead to improved electrical performance of printed anodes. Similar behavior was found for PVDF Kureha 9100 and Kureha 9300 in the mixture with PVP.
Gravure inks for battery anodes were formulated and printed on a laboratory K-proofer with proprietary engraving. It was found that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) inks showed good printability, but poor battery performance. Using mixed PVP/PVDF 9300 or PVP/PVDF 9100 binder combination could effectively improve battery performance without significantly sacrificing the printability. From several graphites having particle sizes between 5 to 15 µm, graphite with 5 µm particle size was the most suitable for gravure printing. Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) inks under commercial name Kureha 9100 or 9300 with N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) solvent showed best specific capacity during three charging/discharging cycles, and irreversible capacity loss was even lower when these PVDF polymers were mixed with polyvinylpyrrolidone. FTIR study showed that methylene group (-C-H2) and carbonyl groups (C=O) demonstrated lower transmittance and O-H groups showed stretching. This clearly suggests the formation of hydrogen bonds. Hence, the hydrogen bonds formed between the methylene groups and carbonyl groups could be a contributing factor to the reduction of irreversible capacity loss (ICL) in mixed binder printed anodes.
This work was made possible by funding through DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (DE-EE0009111) by Wu Q. et al: Enabling Advanced Electrode Architecture through Printing and Pekarovicova A.: GEF-PGSF Gravure Day 2021 grant. Authors thank PGSF for donating gravure RK-proofer.
To be able to review all the References download PDF at: jpmtr_12(2023)1_web_2224.pdf
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Member Benefit Corner: 2023 R2R USA Conference in Milwaukee, WI! Pricing increases on August 31!! Register Today!
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Register two attendees and get the 3rd at no charge!
Applies to paid attendee registrations and with one payment!!!
Automatically applies online when completing registration with ONE PAYMENT.
Jim Garvey and the Printing committee encourage all GAA Committee members to reach out to all your industry friends and encourage them to attend the R2R.
The association exists only through the participation of its members and networking is the best way to stay current in the converting industry.
ARC Members Benefits!
Want to learn about all the resources included with your membership?
Schedule a website walkthrough for you and your team. Learn how to create new personal profiles, access exclusive member resources, see how to get more involved, access training courses, and more! Contact Tim Janes to schedule your website walkthrough: email@example.com or +1 803-948-9469.
Articles from August edition: Biden-Harris Administration Proposes to Improve Air Pollution Emissions Data
On July 25, 2023, EPA announced proposed updates to the Agency’s Air Emissions Reporting Requirements rule, including proposing to require reporting of hazardous air pollutants, or “air toxics.” Air toxics are known or suspected to cause cancer and other serious health effects. The proposed updates would ensure that EPA has readily available data to identify places where people are exposed to harmful air pollution and to develop solutions, aligning with the Biden-Harris Administration’s commitment to advancing environmental justice.
From the press release see below
Information Webinars and Public Hearing – Learn More
EPA is holding a series of webinars to provide detailed information on background of the AERR and the current proposed rules. The deadline to submit written comments is October 18, 2023.
The reporting proposal will affect those who chrome plate gravure image carrying cylinders:
If you want to see the 105 page proposal:
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 2 and 51 [EPA–HQ–OAR–2004–0489; FRL–8604–02– OAR] RIN 2060–AV41 Revisions to the Air Emissions Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule.
Go To: 2023-16158.pdf (govinfo.gov)
Biden-Harris Administration Announces $135 Million to Reduce Emissions Across America’s Industrial Sector:
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced $135 million for 40 projects that will reduce carbon pollution from the industrial sector and move the nation toward a net-zero emissions economy by 2050 by advancing key transformational and innovative technologies. Decarbonizing the U.S. industrial sector is an essential component of President Biden’s ambitious clean energy goals and is critical to achieving a clean energy future that benefits all Americans.
To download August SmallBiz@EPA issue go to: SmallBiz@EPA August 2023 (mailchi.mp)
And send your member news to be featured on the association website and Converting Quarterly website. Login and use our quick Member News Submission Form.
There will be multiple technical-presentation tracks plus keynote speakers. Topics to include: Web Handling, Coating & Laminating, Gravure (Printing), Sustainability, Vacuum Coating, and Breakthrough Markets (Printed Electronics/Battery). Presentations are 25 minutes w/ 5 minutes Q & A.
Converting Quarterly, the official technical journal of AIMCAL, is a great source of information and current news from members and the industry. Go to https://www.convertingquarterly.com/ to subscribe to the quarterly print magazine, the digital edition, the weekly CQ eNews…or all three. For all the news you may have missed, go to Archived News (aimcal.org)
If you are looking for new employees or are looking for employment, we encourage you to use the new resources on the ARC website: (Jobs: RolltoRoll.org). Members may post jobs at NO CHARGE. We invite you to see how easy it is to post jobs online today. To maximize your job posting, you should also post on the GAA website at Job Openings | Gravure Association of the Americas (gaa.org)
Go to the following link to: Meet the Team | Association for Roll-to-Roll Converters
Anyone interested in having their company become a member of this dynamic
association of companies that are promoting the Gravure Printing & Coating Process,
please go to: Member Benefits & Values | Association for Roll-to-Roll Converters
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